Kohli (225) was at the crease when umpires called for the break at the Ferozshah Kotla Stadium here.
Right from the first ball of the morning session, Kohli and Rohit (65) were right on the money. They thrashed the Lankan bowlers at will and maintained a good run rate.
The two forged 129 runs in the session before the Mumbai batsman was dismissed on the last ball of the session.
Resuming the day at 371/4, overnight batsman Kohli continued where he stopped on Saturday. Rohit, at the other end, supported him by playing some beautifully crafted shots.
In the process, Kohli completed his sixth double ton in 238 balls and third in the current year.
With this century, the Delhi batsmen joined Sachin Tendulkar and Virender Sehwag in sharing the record of most number (six) of double centuries for India in Test cricket.
Sri Lankan bowlers, on the other hand, created several chances but failed to make them count and thus got struggled at the placid wicket.
Just before the lunch, Rohit also completed his half century in 88 balls but just when things seemed good in the middle, Rohit was dismissed on the last ball of the session by spinner Lakshan Sandakan. Rohit scored 65 runs in 102 balls.
For Sri Lanka, Sandakan was the only successful bowler in the morning session as he chipped in Rohit.
Brief scores: India: 500/5 (Virat Kohli 225 not out, Murali Vijay 155, Rohit Sharma 65; Lakshan Sandakan 3/148) vs Sri Lanka at lunch on Day 2.