The Republican president said he did not think he could reach a deal with Nancy Pelosi and Chuck Schumer on funding the government, BBC reported on Tuesday.
The Democrats said they would negotiate with Republican lawmakers instead.
Averting a federal shutdown is just one of this month’s big challenges for Republicans, who control Capitol Hill.
The party’s lawmakers are also under pressure to pass a far-reaching tax plan that they can send to the president’s desk by the end of the year.
The Republican tax bill cleared the Senate Budget Committee on Tuesday in a 12-11 vote along party lines, with a full vote by the chamber expected this week.
“I think we’re going to get it passed,” Trump said of the bill on Tuesday after meeting lawmakers on Capitol Hill.
However, Congress must also agree a year-end spending package to keep the US government running beyond 8 December.
Democrats have suggested negotiations could hinge on saving an Obama-era programme that allowed undocumented immigrants who entered the US as children to stay.
Trump tweeted on Tuesday morning: “Meeting with ‘Chuck and Nancy’ today about keeping government open and working.
“Problem is they want illegal immigrants flooding into our Country unchecked, are weak on Crime and want to substantially RAISE Taxes. I don’t see a deal!”
House Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi and Chuck Schumer, who is her Senate equivalent, later issued a joint statement abruptly calling off the meeting.
Later on Tuesday, the President told reporters of Pelosi and Schumer: “They’ve been all talk and no action.”